Dog dermatology is a broad term that encompasses all skin conditions that affect dogs. These conditions can range from mild and easily treatable to severe and life-threatening. Some of the most common dog dermatology issues include:
- Allergies (food allergies and environmental allergies)
- Hot spots
- Atopic dermatitis
- Ear infection
- Autoimmune diseases
- Hair loss
- Parasitic skin diseases
- Cancer cysts and tumors
- Yeast infections
Below we go into further detail about some of the most common dermatological issues and skin disorders in dogs.
Common Causes of Dog Skin Conditions
Rashes, dry skin, allergic reactions to flea bites, and itchy skin are some of the most common skin problems veterinary dermatologists deal with on a typical day.
- Allergies. Allergies are a leading cause of dog skin problems. They can be caused by a variety of allergens that attack the immune system, including food, environment, and fleas. Allergies can cause itching, redness, swelling, and hair loss.
- Hot spots. Hot spots are small, moist, inflamed areas of skin that are often caused by excessive scratching or licking. They can be very painful and can lead to infection.
- Dermatophytosis (ringworm). Dermatophytosis is a fungal infection that can cause hair loss, scaling, and crusting of the skin. It is contagious to both dogs and humans.
- Mange. Mange is a parasitic skin infection that is caused by mite infestations. There are three types of mange in dogs: sarcoptic mange, demodectic mange, and otodectic mange. Sarcoptic mange is the most common type and causes intense itching. Demodectic mange is a less common type that is caused by mites that live in the hair follicles. Otodectic mange is a type of mange that affects the ears.
- Bacterial infections. Bacterial skin infections can cause a variety of skin problems in dogs, including folliculitis, hot spots, lesions, ear infections, and pyoderma.
- Viral infections. Viral infections can also cause skin problems in dogs, such as canine distemper and canine papilloma virus.
Symptoms of Skin Issues in Dogs
The signs and symptoms of dog dermatology issues can vary depending on the underlying cause. Some common symptoms pet owners should watch for include:
- Hair loss
- Excessive licking
- Open wounds
- Dandruff/scaly, flaky skin
If you notice any of these symptoms in your dog, it is important to take them to the vet for an accurate diagnosis and treatment options. The vet will perform a physical examination and may recommend skin scrapings, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of the problem.
The treatment for dog dermatology issues will vary depending on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:
- Oral medications like antihistamines or topical ointments to control itching or infection
- Shampoos or conditioners to help soothe irritated skin
- Diet changes or fatty acid supplements to help manage allergies
- Environmental changes to reduce exposure to allergens
- Surgery to remove tumors or other growths
In some cases, dog dermatology issues can be chronic and require lifelong management. However, with proper care, most dogs can be successfully treated and live healthy, happy lives.
Tips for Preventing Skin Issues in Dogs
Here are some tips for preventing dog dermatology issues:
- Keep your dog’s skin clean and free of dirt and debris.
- Bathe your dog regularly with a mild shampoo.
- Avoid using harsh soaps or detergents.
- Brush your dog’s coat regularly to remove dead hair and skin.
- Use a flea and tick prevention medication.
- Avoid exposing your dog to known allergens.
- Feed your dog a healthy diet.
- Keep your dog’s environment clean and free of mold and mildew.
By following these tips, you can help keep your dog’s skin healthy and prevent dermatological problems.
If you have any questions or concerns about your dog’s skin, please talk to your veterinarian. They can help you diagnose and treat any underlying problems and recommend ways to prevent future problems.
Dr. Laura Wilson DVM, DACVD tells us about the most exciting part of her job and why she became a dermatologist.